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Developmental Milestones/Developments to Date:

Current Assessment/State of the Field:




Belluck, Pam, “Nations Hit by Swine Flu Getting Emergency Drugs,” NYT A11, Nov. 13, 2009.

  1. “Emergency supplies of antiviral drugs are being sent to Ukraine, Afganistan and other countries in Eastern Europe and Cental Asia, where hospitals report that they are being overwhelmed by patients with swine flu, the World Health Organization said Thursday.”
  2. “The agancy [WHO] said it was revising its guidelines and urging more people to take antiviral medication even before they are sure they have the flu.”
  3. “the agency was not yet confident, as it is now, about the safety and efficacy of the antivirals, Tamiflu and Relenza. Doctors there were also worried about shortages.”
  4. “The agency said the countries most affected were Afganistan, Mongolia, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan.”
  5. “When the authorities in Lviv, in western Ukraine, officiallyconnected the deaths to swine flu and called for quarantine measures, frightened residents began buying up masks, prices of home remedies like garlic and lemon shot up and ambulance calls increased fivefold.”

Flu, Vaccination, WHO, Quarantine, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan


Shane, Scott, “Expert Panel Is Critical of F.B.I. Work in Investigating Anthrax Letters,” February 15, 2011. last checked February 16, 2011.

  1. “A review of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s scientific work on the investigation of the anthrax letters of 2001 concludes that the bureau overstated the strength of genetic analysis linking the mailed anthrax to a supply kept by Bruce E. Ivins, the Army microbiologist whom the investigators blamed for the attacks.”
  2. “The review, by a panel convened by the National Academy of Sciences, says the genetic analysis “did not definitively demonstrate” that the mailed anthrax spores were grown from a sample taken from Dr. Ivins’s laboratory at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Md. It does add, however, that the evidence is “consistent with and supports an association” between Dr. Ivins’s flask and the attack anthrax.”
  3. “The F.B.I. ‘has long maintained that while science played a significant role, it was the totality of the investigative process that determined the outcome of the anthrax case,’ the statement said. It said Dr. Ivins ‘was determined to be the perpetrator of the deadly mailings.’”
  4. “In an interview, three investigators who spent years on the case expressed frustration with the academy’s findings but said the report raised no questions that change the conclusion about Dr. Ivins. The investigators, who were not authorized to speak on the record, said the academy report merely underscored the difference between pure science and the reality of gathering evidence in a criminal case.”
  5. “Dr. Ivins’s guilt has been adamantly denied by many of his colleagues at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, where he was seen as an eccentric but popular character. The academy’s report is likely to renew claims by the F.B.I.’s critics that the bureau merely took advantage of Dr. Ivins’s suicide to close the case.”
  6. “The academy report calls for another look at tests that indicated the possible presence of anthrax at a primitive lab used by Al Qaeda; the report does not give its location, but such a lab was found in Afghanistan after the American invasion. The anthrax investigators said an exhaustive review, including interviews with Qaeda operatives who used the facility, found no evidence that it was capable of producing the anthrax powder in the mailings.”

Anthrax, Law Enforcement, al-Qaeda, Afghanistan, Personnel Reliability


Constable, Pamela, “Homeland Security to add staff in Afghanistan“, 2 January 2011, The Washington Post Last Checked 20 February 2011.

  1. “Work will focus on supporting border control and training Afghan officials in anti-smuggling techniques, with special emphasis on stopping illegal shipments of bulk cash.”
  2. “The cash, drugs, precious gems, historic artifacts and timber smuggled out of Afghanistan are a huge drain on its economy, with hundreds of millions of dollars a year leaving the country illegally.”
  3. “The department plans to significantly bolster its activities in Afghanistan over the coming year, adding as many as 54 agents to the current contingent of 25.”

Homeland Security, Afghanistan


Gertz, Bill, “Inside the Ring”, 16 March 2011, The Washington Times Last Checked 26 March 2011.

  1. ‘“The cyberthreat continues to mature, posing dangers that far exceed the 2008 breach of our classified systems,…”’
  2. “He also disclosed that computer warfare troops were dispatched to the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq.”
  3. “He warned that the command is working to defend against a “Cyber 9/11” attack.”
  4. “The command is projected to have 931 military and civilian officials and a budget of $159 million by next year.”
  5. ‘“We believe that state actors have developed cyberweapons to cripple infrastructure targets in ways tantamount to kinetic assaults. Some of these weapons could potentially destroy hardware as well as data and software,…”’
  6. “His command is prepared to use offensive cyberwarfare to defend freedom of action in cyberspace and deny adversaries its use.”
  7. ‘“In sum, our adversaries in cyberspace are highly capable.”’

Cybersecurity, Military, Iraq, Afghanistan


Markoff, John, “SecurID Company Suffers a Breach of Data Security” 17 March 2011 New York Times Last Checked 26 March 2011.

  1. “The RSA Security division of the EMC Corporation said Thursday that it had suffered a sophisticated data breach, potentially compromising computer security products widely used by corporations and governments.”
  2. “Mr. Coviello said that the company’s investigation had revealed that the intruder successfully stole digital information from the company that was related to RSA’s SecurID two-factor authentication products.”
  3. ‘“He did not give precise details about the nature of the information, but said it could potentially reduce the effectiveness of the system in the face of a “broader attack.”’
  4. “One possibility,… is that a “master key” – a large secret number used as part of the encryption algorithm- might have been stolen.”
  5. “The worst case,… would be that the intruder could produce cards that duplicate the ones supplied by RSA, making it possible to gain access to corporate networks and computer systems.”
  6. “despite the lack of detail, several computer security specialists said the breach could pose a real threat to companies and government agencies who rely on the technology.”
  7. “The company, which pioneered an advanced cryptographic system during the 1980s, sells products that offer stronger computer security than simple password protection.”
  8. “RSA was founded in 1982 by a small group of technologists who at times were actively opposed by the National Security Agency, which was trying to limit the spread of sophisticated cryptography technology.”
  9. “In 2009, the company said publicly that its SecurID system was being used by 40 million customers.”
  10. “Last year it said its technology used to secure the identities and assets of more than 250 million people.”

Cybersecurity, Afghanistan

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