Force Protection

== 2000 ==
”’Murrey, Thomas W”’. “Khobar Tower’s Aftermath: The Development of Force Protection,” October 25, 2000. []
* “Prior to the Khobar Towers bombing, military members rarely heard the words “force protection”.  “Anti-terrorism” was the expression used to describe the measures taken to prevent terrorist attacks. After the Khobar Towers, the term “force protection” became familiar to every military member located overseas. In every operational mission that takes place today, force protection is an overriding concern that often dictates how the mission is performed, where military personnel live, and how military personnel conduct themselves on and off duty.”
* “The Department of Defense definition of force protection is: “the security program designed to protect soldiers, civilian employees, family members, facilities, and equipment, in all locations and situations, accomplished through planned and integrated application of combating terrorism (antiterrorism and counterterrorism), physical security, operations security, personal protective services, and supported by intelligence, counterintelligence, and other securityprograms.”
* ” The very first issue in establishing a force protection program is determining who is responsible for establishing and administering this “security program designed to protect”. For personnel located overseas, the responsibility belongs to either the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Defense.”
* ” Another complex issue regarding force protection responsibility involves contractors hired by the Department of Defense. Oftentimes, contract employees will accompany United States forces on contingency operations and provide services ranging from food services to computer support to engineering support. For example, the engineering firm of Brown and Root provided support to deployed United States forces in contingency operations in Somalia and Bosnia. Contractors will oftentimes eat, work and live alongside deployed military personnel. The question is “who provides force protection for these contractors?”
* ” When DoD personnel are assigned to an overseas location, they must abide by the laws of the United States as well as the laws of the host nation. A force protection program must operate within the same restraints. Multilateral and bilateral international agreements create the framework within which overseas force protection programs must operate. All actions to combat terrorism outside the United States must comply with applicable Status of Forces Agreements, international agreements, and memoranda of understanding.”
*[[Force Protection]], [[Law]]
== Anti terrorism and Force Protection ==

* “Department of Defense policy requires that all DOD military and civilian personnel and supporting defense contractors receive an Anti terrorism/Force Protection briefing before travel to any destination outside the United States(except Guam and Midway island. DOD contractors are to provide their personnel working on contracts outside the United States with AT/FP awareness information commensurate with that which DOD provides to its military and civilian personnel and their families.”
* “There is a graduated series of Force Protection Conditions ranging from Force Protection Conditions normal to Force Protection Conditions Delta. There is a process by which commanders at all levels can raise or lower the Force Protection Conditions based on local conditions, specific threat information and or guidance from higher headquarters. The four Force Protection Conditions above normal are:
*”Force Protection Conditions ALPHA–This condition applies when there is a general threat of possible terrorist activity against personnel and facilities, the nature and extent of which are unpredictable, and circumstances do not justify full implementation of Force Protection Conditions BRAVO measures. The measures in this Force Protection Conditions must be capable of being maintained indefinitely.”
*”Force Protection Conditions BRAVO–This condition applies when an increased and more predictable threat of terrorist activity exists. The measures in this Force Protection Conditions must be capable of being maintained for weeks without causing undue hardship, affecting operational capability, and aggravating relations with local authorities.”
*”Force Protection Conditions CHARLIE–This condition applies when an incident occurs or intelligence is received indicating some form of terrorist action against personnel and facilities is imminent. Implementation of measures in this Force Protection Conditions for more than a short period probably will create hardship and affect the peacetime activities of the unit and its personnel.”
*”Force Protection Conditions DELTA–This condition applies in the immediate area where a terrorist attack has occurred or when intelligence has been received that terrorist action against a specific location or person is likely. Normally, this Force Protection Conditions is declared as a localized condition.”

== ”’2005”’ ==
”’Thompson, Donald F.””’ “The Bug Stops Here:Force Protection and Emerging Infectious Diseases,” The Center for Technology and National Security Policy. 2005”

* “The typical warfighter today often experiences a lower rate of disease and non-battle injuries while deployed than in garrison. Personal protective equpiment, such as body armor, provides a much greater degree of force protection in today’s combat environment of urban warfare and low-intensity combat.”
* “This new era of emerging and reemerging diseases will continue to pose an increasing global health threat that will affect national and international security in the near and long term future. Infectious diseases are a major contributor to poverty and disorder. ”
* ” Scientific progress in molecular biology, biotechnology, and other fields has led to great progress in our understanding of disease, in the medical capabilities at our disposal, and just as essentially, in commander priorities.”
* “The threat of rapidly spreading influenza within the United States will likely lead to irrational behavior and even panic as people try to protect themselves and their families from such a threat. Government authorities at all levels will be inundated as they try to allocate scarce medical resources. Freedom of movement will likely be reduced in an effort to limit disease spread. As movement of people is reduced, so will movement of goods and services.This will degrade the ability of military installations to resupply and to move service members and combat equipment from base to base or from the United States to an overseas location. As global power projection is key to the U.S. military strength, these movement limitations must be considered and overcome before a pandemic hits.”
* ” “U.S. Special Operations Forces are particularly mobile throughout the world and may be required to travel to geographic locations with dangerous and unknown disease threats. Even though attached medical support prepares for known infectious disease threats, it is impossible to fully predict what health threats SOF may encounter.”
== 2012 ==
”’Miller, Greg, & Tate, Julie”’,  “CIA’s Global Response Staff emerging from shadows after incidents in Libya and Pakistan,” The Washington post, December 26, 2012 available at [] last checked December 31, 2012.
*”Two of the Americans killed in Benghazi were members of the CIA’s Global Response Staff, an innocuously named organization that has recruited hundreds of former U.S. Special Forces operatives to serve as armed guards for the agency’s spies.”
*”The GRS, as it is known, is designed to stay in the shadows, training teams to work undercover and provide an unobtrusive layer of security for CIA officers in high-risk outposts.”
*”Of the 14 CIA employees killed since 2009, five worked for the GRS, all as contractors. They include two killed at Benghazi, as well as three others who were within the blast radius on Dec. 31, 2009, when a Jordanian double agent detonated a suicide bomb at a CIA compound in Khost, Afghanistan.”
*”The increasingly conspicuous role of the GRS is part of a broader expansion of the CIA’s paramilitary capabilities over the past 10 years. Beyond hiring former U.S. military commandos, the agency has collaborated with U.S. Special Operations teams on missions including the raid that killed Osama bin Laden and has killed thousands of Islamist militants and civilians with its fleet of armed drones.”
*”CIA veterans said that GRS teams have become a critical component of conventional espionage, providing protection for case officers whose counterterrorism assignments carry a level of risk that rarely accompanied the cloak-and-dagger encounters of the Cold War.”
*”Spywork used to require slipping solo through cities in Eastern Europe. Now, ‘clandestine human intelligence involves showing up in a Land Cruiser with some [former] Deltas or SEALs, picking up an asset and then dumping him back there when you are through,’ said a former CIA officer who worked closely with the security group overseas.”
*”Current and former U.S. intelligence officials said the GRS has about 125 employees working abroad at any given time, with at least that many rotating through cycles of training and off-time in the United States.”
*’The work is lucrative enough that recruiting is done largely by word of mouth, said one former U.S. intelligence official. Candidates tend to be members of U.S. Special Forces units who have recently retired, or veterans of police department SWAT teams.”
*”In some cases, elite GRS units provide security for personnel from other agencies, including National Security Agency teams deploying sensors or eavesdropping equipment in conflict zones, a former special operator said. The most skilled security operators are informally known as ‘scorpions.’”
*”Their main tasks are to map escape routes from meeting places, pat down informants and provide an ‘envelope’ of security, the former official said, all while knowing that ‘if push comes to shove, you’re going to have to shoot.’”
*”In Benghazi, a GRS team rushed to a burning State Department compound in an attempt to rescue U.S. diplomats, then evacuated survivors to a nearby CIA site that also came under attack. Two GRS contractors who had taken positions on the roof of the site were killed by mortar strikes.”
*[[State Department]], [[Force Protection]], [[Law Enforcement]]
== 2015 ==
”’Szabolsci, Robert”’, “Night Watchbird UAV System: An Effective Tool Improving Force Protection Capabilities in the War Theatres,” Proceedings of the Scientific Conference AFASES, 105, May 2015.
*“The publication of the European Committee’s “Flightpath 2050 – Europe’s Vision for Aviation” is dealing with main trends of evolution of the aviation, including UAV-technologies, till the year of 2050, deriving main tasks to be solved maintaining the goals proposed by EC.”
*“This strategic document can be effectively used although in military UAV applications and missions, i.e. in force protection tasks maintained by military units serving in war theatres.”
*“The Night Watchbird UAV System is a new concept of the autonomous UAV recce system supporting solution of the force protection taks of the military units serving mainly in war theatres.”
*“The proposed system is a reconnaissance system, which executes simultaneously the data acquisition, data storage, data transmission to the ground control station, with preliminary data assessment to support commanders to take fast and correct decisions.”
*“The Night Watchbird UAV System is a new security system able to identify:  the event of incursion into military base; the intruder, making difference between ’human’ and ’not human’ intruders;  intentional, or unintentional incursion of the human intruder. If intentional incursion of the human is identified, he will be grab and escorted by the UAV till ground forces take actions.”
*[[Force Protection]], [[Military]]
”’Mamitt, Aaron”’, “US Military To Launch Second Radar-Equipped Airship To Beef Up Missile Defense System Along East Coast”, Tech Times, pg.1, August 2015.
*”The United States military is about to launch the second radar-equipped airship in Aberdeen, Maryland, in a bid to further improve the missile defense system in place along the east coast of the country.”
*”The airship carries radar systems that are designed to identify any incoming threats from the air.”
*”The addition of the second blimp will allow for the radar systems to detect objects faster than before, giving military officials more time to decide on what to do in case hostile objects in the air are detected.”
*”The program will last for three years, and the decision on whether the two airships will continue to be in the air after that period will depend on how well the blimps work.”
*[[Force Protection]], [[Military]]

”’Koh, Joyce”’, “SC National Guard Increases Force Protection”, WLTX 19, pg.1, August 2015
*”Following the shooting deaths of five service members at a military recruiting center in Chattanooga, TN, Governor Haley signed an executive order Monday, allowing South Carolina National Guard to be armed.”
*“The South Carolina Law Enforcement Division is training guard members to protect bases, armories and recruitment centers all throughout the state.”
*“The national guard is constantly taking measures to improve their force protection, but says they needed Haley’s executive order to work alongside local law enforcement in this long term way.”
*” King said a large part of the training effort by SLED is in building relationships between the national guard and local law enforcement.”
*[[Force Protection]], [[Military]]

”’Peruzzi, Luca”’, “BORDER AND BASE PERIMETERS: NO TRESPASSING PLEASE,” Armada International, pg.2, February/March 2013.
*”Urgent requirements to provide camp protection systems during operations in Iraq led to the development of the Rapid Aerostat Initial Deployment (Raid)/ Persistent Surveillance and Dissemination System of Systems (PSDS2) suite from Raytheon, which was provided to US forces from mid-2005.”
*”The Department of Defense’s subsequent efforts in this domain came under the Base Expeditionary Targeting and Surveillance Systems_Combined (BETSS-C) programme, which comprises a combination of force protection systems (FPS).”
*”The latter includes the Raid in the aerostat, mast and tower configurations, Cerberus tower-based system, the Force Protection Suite (FPS) and the Rapid Deployment Integrated Surveillance System (RDISS). In service in various models is the BETSS-C/Raid transportable quick erect tower configuration based on Flir System’s Star Safire III electrooptical/infrared (EO/IR) sensor and a ground surveillance radar (GSR), data link, generator and standard ground station (SGS), provided by SRI Sarnoff and common to all BETSS-C systems, with sensors collection, fusion and displaying capabilities for base defence and target acquisition.”
*”Under the Joint Force Protection Advanced Security System (JFPASS) technology demonstrator programme, the US Army developed the Combat Outpost Surveillance and Force Protection System (COSFPS), which was assigned to Flir Systems as prime contractor (see box). These force protection systems employ a range of advanced cameras and electro-optics, such as Flir Systems Star Safire family of sensors including SS III, III XR+, High Definition, Thermo Vision 3000 and Ranger T3000/ III. The Boomerang shooter detection system is the standard unattended acoustic sensor for both bases and force protection. It is also being provided in a single soldier integrated solution.”
*[[Force Protection]], [[Military]]

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