Sign in to your account.

Status Brief

Developmental Milestones/Developments to Date:

Current Assessment/State of the Field:




Henderson, D., A., “Bioterrorism as a Public Health Threat,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, No. 3, July-sept 1998.

  1. Admonition & historical accounts.

Russia, Japan, Ebola, Marburg, Hemorrhagic Fever, Smallpox, Anthrax, Germany, Yugoslavia, Vaccination, Iraq, Bioterrorism


Schwirtz, Michael, Cowell, Alan, “Suspect in Russian’s Poisoning Isn’t Charged,” NYT, A6, Nov. 13, 2009.

  1. “German prosecutors have abandonded investigations into one of the main figures suspected of involvement in the killing of former K.G.B. officer in London 3 years ago without bringing charges.”
  2. “Dmitiri V. Kovtun, … was initially suspected by German prosecutors of illegally transportting a rare radioactive isotope, Polnium 210, through Germany and then to London, where investigators say it was used to poison Alexander V. Litvinenko, a former K.G.B. officer and whistleblower.”
  3. “The Litvinenko case deeply strained relations between Britain and Russia.”

Jurisdiction, Russia, U.K., Germany


Schwartz, John, “Two German Killers Demanding Anonymity Sue Wikipedia’s Parent,NYT, A 13, Nov. 13, 2009.

  1. “Wolfgang Werle and Manfred Lauber became infamous for killing a German actor in 1990.  Now they are suing to force Wikipedia to forget them.”
  2. “The legal fight pits German privacy law against the American First Amendment.”
  3. “But Germany’s courts have come up with a different balance between the right to privacy and the public’s right to know, Mr. Abrams said.”
  4. “Publications generally comply with the law, Mr. Hoppner said.”
  5. “he [Hoppner] said, but the logic may not be workable in the Internet age, when archival material that was legally published at the time can be called up with a simple Google search.”

Information Policy, Jurisdiction, Germany


Birch, Douglas, “ US: Cuber Attacks on  utilities, industries 3 October, 2011,

  1. “U.S. utilities and industries face a rising number of cyber break-ins by attackers using more sophisticated methods,…”
  2. “The world’s utilities and industries increasingly are becoming vulnerable as they wire their industrial machinery to the Internet.”
  3. “Disgruntled employees, hackers and perhaps foreign governments ‘are knocking on the doors of these systems, and there have been intrusions.’”
  4. “According to the DHS, Control System Security Program cyber experts based at the Idaho National Laboratory responded to 116 requests for assistance in 2010, and 342 so far this year.”
  5. “Under current law, the reporting of cyber attacks by private organizations is strictly voluntary.”
  6. “The Obama administration has proposed making reporting mandatory, but the White House could find the idea difficult to sell at a time when Republicans complain about increased regulation of business.”
  7. “Officials said they knew of only one recent criminal conviction for corrupting industrial control systems, that of a former security guard at a Dallas hospital whose hacking of hospital computers wound up shutting down the air conditioning system.”
  8. “The Homeland Security Department’s control system program includes the emergency response team, a Cyber Analysis Center where systems are tested for vulnerabilities, a malware laboratory for analyzing cyber threats…”
  9. “A classified “watch and warning center” where data about threats are assessed and shared with other cyber security and intelligence offices.”
  10. “Marty Edwards, chief of the control system security effort, said the malware lab analyzed the Stuxnet virus that attacked the Iranian uranium enrichment facility in Natanz last year.”
  11. “The Stuxnet worm exploited well-known design flaws common to many system controllers, vulnerabilities that in general can’t be patched.”
  12. “Many independent experts and former government officials suspect that Stuxnet was created by the United States, perhaps with the help of Israel, Britain and Germany.”
  13. “The U.S. and other nations believe Iran is building a nuclear weapons program, but Tehran insists it is interested only in the peaceful uses of nuclear technology.”
  14. “While U.S. officials talk frequently about the threat of cyber attacks to America, they seldom discuss the country’s offensive cyber weapons capability.”
  15. “The U.S. is thought to be the world’s leader in cyber warfare, both defensive and offensive.”
  16. “U.S. officials and others long have feared that future wars will include cyber assaults on the industries and economies of adversaries, and the potential targets include power plants, pipelines and air traffic control systems.”
  17. “Because of its advanced industrial base and large number of computer controlled machines connected to the Internet, the U.S. is thought to be highly vulnerable to a cyber attack on its infrastructure.”
  18. “In a 2007 test at the Idaho National Laboratory, government hackers were able to break into the control system running a large diesel generator, causing it to self-destruct.”
  19. “A video of the test, called Aurora, still posted on YouTube, shows parts flying off the generator as it shakes, shudders and finally halts in a cloud of smoke.”
  20. ““Before the test, he said, the notion of cyber warfare “was mainly smoke and mirrors. But the Aurora tests showed that, you know what? We have a new kind of weapon.””
  21. “Homeland Security officials said they have not conducted such a test on that scale since. But they demonstrated Thursday how a hacker could tunnel under firewalls in computer systems to take command of industrial processes.”
  22. “All systems deployed have vulnerabilities,…”

Cybersecurity, BioHacker, Iran, Germany, Israel


Editors, “Registration for CyberPatriot IV competition to end this weekhomelandsecuritynewswire. 5 October, 2011,

  1. “With less than a week left before registration closes, CyberPatriot IV, the National High School Cyber Defense Competition, has more than 850 teams registered.”
  2. “This competition is attracting high school educators across the United States. Forty-seven states, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Department of Defense Dependent Schools in England, Germany, Japan, and Korea are represented in this year’s competition.”
  3. “CyberPatriot is a unique cyber security competition produced by the Air Force Association (AFA), a nonprofit organization headquartered near Washington, D.C.”
  4. “The structure of the competition provides students hands-on learning while competing virtually against their peers and introduces many to the idea of cyber security as a profession.”
  5. “Teams of two to five students, with an approved coach (usually a teacher), learn to defend computer networks from real-life computer threats.”

Cybersecurity, Japan, Germany