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Status Brief

Developmental Milestones/Developments to Date:

Current Assessment/State of the Field:




McNeill, Donald, G., “Transfers of Surplus Flu Vaccine Are Going Slowly to Countries That Need It,” NYT, A15, February 2, 2010.

  1. “There is now so much unused swine flu vaccine in the world that rich nations, including the United States, are trying to get rid of their surpluses.”
  2. “…95 countries that told the World Health Organization last year that they had no means of getting flu vaccine…”
  3. “… countries that can afford vaccines save themselves first and, when the worst has passed, transfer their leftovers to the poor, using the W.H.O. as a clearinghouse. …’it’s a very complex operation.’”
  4. “Each country must submit a plan proving it can store and refrigerate vaccine, give it to those who need it most, inject it safely and do medical follow-up.  It must also sign letters exempting donors from legal liability, and the W.H.O. has to certify the vaccine as safe if the country has no regulatory agency.”
  5. “Bill Gates … dismissed flu vaccine shipments a ‘a pipe dream.’  ‘It’s not practical; they have no infrastructure to deliver it.’
  6. “At first , there was deep skepticism; 80 percent of French residents polled said they would refuse.  But after a few deaths were reported, such huge lines formed that, in Lyon, the riot police were called.”
  7. “The chairman of the Swiss pharmaceutical company Novartis, Daniel Vasella, recently warned governments breaking their contracts might not be be first in line in the next pandemic.  ‘Reliable partners will be treated preferentially,’ Mr. Vasella said.”
  8. “Canada recently lent Mexico five million doses because Mexico’s first shipments were not due to arrive until this month.  Similar bilateral deals took place between Western and Eastern Europe, a W.H.O. spokesman said.”
  9. “The [U.S.] cancellation of 22 million doses out of 36 million ordered from CSL Ltd., an Australian manufacturer that fell behind on orders anyway…”
  10. “The [US] country also promised 25 million doses to the W.H.O. [and the rest will be stockpiled in bulk antigen form, i.e. a portion of which will not placed in viles.] an extra step that involves a separate payment.”

Vaccination, Flu, WHO, Pandemic, Poland, Canada, Mexico, France, Australia


Gondeck, B. et al., “Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance in Poland from 1945 to 1989 (selected issues)Progress in Health Sciences Volume 4, Issue 2. 88. December 2014

  1. “Purpose: To summarize the establishment, development and modification of sanitary and epidemiological structures, the introduction of vaccinations as well as other medical means of overcoming infectious diseases, improving people’s living conditions and health situation” – page 88
  2. “After the end of World War II, as a result of infrastructural damages, bad sanitary conditions (devastation of waterworks, sewage systems and wells, among others), chronic undernourishment or even hunger, lack of medicaments and vaccines through the first two decades, the basic epidemiological problems were infectious diseases such as: diphtheria, typhus, typhoid, poliomyelitis, pertussis, measles, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, dysentery and diarrhea.” – page 89
  3. “The National Repatriation Office … aim was to coordinate, organize and supervise post-war migration movements of the population and then to create organizational structures which would control sanitary and epidemiological issues of migrating people by establishing the Department of Health.” – page 90
  4. “The National Repatriation Office was supposed to create an effective system of diagnosing infectious diseases, isolating the sick and forcing them to undergo medical treatment. Thanks to this, it was possible to prevent potential mass infections” – page 90
  5. “Since 1946, migration movements had been gradually decreasing, which led to liquidating the National Repatriation Office on March, 31st, 1951 by the Liquidation Committee … Considering the significant improvement of the country’s epidemic situation, in April 1947 the Chief Emergency Commissariat for Epidemic Control (CEC) was liquidated. After the liquidation of CEC, all cases concerning sanitary and epidemiological actions were taken over by the Sanitary Epidemiological Department of the Dept. of Health” – page 91
  6. “In the 1960s, a system of reporting and registration of illness and demise rates, conducted by sanitary and epidemiological stations, was developed” – page 91
  7. “Data was sent in the form of a report or an overall study to the National Institute of Hygiene. In 1968, the reports concerned 36 disease entities and in 1971 as many as 51 entities. Differences in the sent reports were a result of introducing an infectious diseases act, and the implementation of its amendments” – page 91
  8. “The ongoing epidemiological threat after World War II, connected with the spread of infectious diseases, caused the National Institute of Hygiene to set as their main priority supplying with high quality vaccines and propagating an accurate vaccination policy” – page 91
  9. “At the beginning of the 1960s, the Institute [of Hygiene] began studies in the field of infectious diseases and environmental epidemiology. The end of the 1960s was a time of examining bacteria’s resistance to antibiotics, which later developed into studies concerning hospital infections.” – page 92
  10. “After the liberation of Polish territories from German occupation, mass migrations and disastrous sanitary and hygienic conditions led to outbreaks of huge epidemics of infectious diseases among the Polish population.” – page 92

Public Health, Poland, Surveillance, Vaccination